At first, he would see a colorful circle. It would grow a shimmering, flashing tail “dripping” down, which he compared to fireworks. “It’s beautiful!” he said of one of these episodes — but they gave him headaches, blinded him when they occurred and left a visual deficit in the right field of his vision for minutes after they subsided.
Five days went by, and the 71-year-old experienced episodes more and more frequently until they were occurring several times an hour. That’s when he decided to drive himself from western Washington to the Seattle division of the VA Puget Sound Health Care System, according to Dr. Christopher Ransom, a staff neurologist at the hospital and first author of a report that accompanied an image the man drew of his hallucinations. The image was published Monday in the journal JAMA Neurology.
Initially, the man was treated in the hospital’s emergency department for a migraine, but his symptoms did not subside.
At that point, “he kind of refused to leave the hospital until he was seen by neurology,” Ransom said.
A neurology consultation resulted in a recommendation for the main diagnostic test available for epilepsy: an electroencephalogram, or EEG, in which electrodes attached to the scalp record brain waves.
The results made a diagnosis abundantly clear to Ransom and his colleagues: occipital lobe epilepsy.
Over the course of the 52-minute EEG, the man experienced three seizures, which Ransom said was uncommon. He added that neurologists will often have to monitor suspected epilepsy patients for days in order to get an EEG of even one seizure.
The test, in combination with the symptoms, also revealed that the seizures originated in the left occipital lobe, a region in the brain that controls vision, color and motion.
Ransom said he and co-authors submitted the man’s drawing with the hope that other physicians may better recognize this type of epilepsy, which is often misdiagnosed as migraine with aura.
Dr. Kathryn Davis, medical director of the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania and a member of the American Neurological Association, said this misdiagnosis is often made because migraines are much more common than occipital lobe epilepsy. Davis, who was not involved in the man’s treatment, said the case highlights how important it is to not always assume that the more common diagnosis is the correct one.